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Korean J Parasitol > Volume 21(1):1983 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1983 Jun;21(1):32-39. English.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1983.21.1.32
Copyright © 1983 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Lipofuscin pigment in adult Clonorchis sinensis
Seung-Yull Cho,Kye-Yong Song,* and Bong-Jin Rah**
Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 151, Korea.
*Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 151, Korea.
**Department of Histology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 151, Korea.

Adult Clonorchis sinensis from infected human cases may have black pigment in their parenchyme. In present paper, the nature of the pigment was investigated.

The pigment distributed in cytoplasm of parenchymal cells of the worms. Histochemically the pigment was positive by periodic acid-Schiff, Ziehl-Neelsen, and lipofuscin stainings. The pigment particle contained many, various sized membrane structure as well as electron dense granules when observed by electron microscopy. Staining characteristics of the black pigment, together with electron microscopic findings, strongly indicated that the pigment was lipofuscin.


Figs. 1-4
Fig. 1. Formalin fixed, unstained adult worms of Clonorchis sinensis. On the left, is an adult without black pigment, which was collected from case No. 5 in Table 1. The worm on the right is the adult laiden with black pigment, which was from case No. 6.

Fig. 2. Lipofuscin pigment at the parenchymal cells of Clonorchis sinensis. H & E staining, ×430.

Fig. 3. Staining with AFIP method for lipofuscin. The pigment particles were stained red by carbol fuchsin, whereas the background was stained yellow by picric acid. ×430.

Fig. 4. Staining with Ziehl-Neelsen method. The cytoplasm of vitelline cells were stained blue by methylene blue. But lipofuscin pigments were stained purple by carbol fuchsin and by methylene blue. ×430.

Figs. 5-6
Fig. 5. Membrane bound lipofuscin particles in cytoplasm of a parenchymal cell of C. sinensis. Lead citrate and uranyl acetate (=L & U) staining. ×5,400.

Fig. 6. High magnification of a lipofuscin pigment from Clonorchis. Various sized electron dense granules and a few of vacuoles are aggregated in the centre, and somewhat homogeneous lysosomal matrix situated in periphery. Due to poor fixation of the sample, limiting membrane is mostly denuded. L & U staining. ×28,000.

Figs. 7-8
Fig. 7.Ibid. Many laminated granules have electron dense core of varying density. L & U staining. ×28,000.

Fig. 8. In this specific site of a particle, a lot of membrane bound granules are found. L & U staining. ×54,000.


Table 1
The origin of adult Clonorchis sinensis from human cases

Table 2
Histochemistry of the black pigment from adult Clonorchis sinensis

1. Chu DS, et al. Korea Univ Med J 1982;19(1):71–80.
2. Faust EC, et al. Am J Hyg 1927;8:90.
3. Kobayashi H. Med Hochchule zu Keijo 1917;1:251–284.
4. Komiya Y. Clonorchis and clonorchiasis. Adv Parasitol 1966;4:53–106.
5. Looss A. Ann Trop Med & Parasit 1907;1:121–154.
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