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Korean J Parasitol > Volume 25(1):1987 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1987 Jun;25(1):69-82. Korean.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1987.25.1.69
Copyright © 1987 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Studies on the Metagonimus fluke in the Daecheong reservoir and the upper stream of Geum river, Korea
Chong Hwan Kim,Nam Man Kim,Chan Hyun Lee and Jin Suk Park
Department of Biology, College of National Sciences, Chungnam National University, Korea.
Abstract

The prevalences of the fluke belonging to genus Metagonimus have been reported along the upper stream of inhabitants by several workers since 1980, however the taxonomical problems of the fluke was not yet settled. The larval flukes; cercaria and metacercaria as well as their intermediate hosts, and adult were studied in order to identify the Metagonimus in the areas. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The snails, Semisulcospira globus were collected from the three different localities along the upper stream of the River. The cercariae were found from 125(7.2%) out of 1,730 snails by natural emerging method, and were identified into 5 species including Metagonimus sp. (3.7%), Pseudexorchis major(1.4%), Cercaria nipponensis (0.9), Cercaria incerta (0.6%) and Cercaria yoshidae(0.6%). Cercariae of Metagonimus species had four to five oral spines on its anterior of the first line. The cercariae of Metagonimus were experimentally exposed to goldfish. Infection rate was 22.9% out of 105 goldfish, and the encysted metacercariae were found in fins(86.7%) and on scales (13.7%) of the fishes, but not in their muscle, head or visceral organs. Seven species of fish were caught in the Daecheong reservoir and the upper stream. Infestations with metacercaria of Metagonimus were found 100% in Opsariichtys bidens and the parasitized numbers of the metacercariae were observed from 250 to 2,400 per fish. In the upper stream, Zacco temmincki, Z. platypus and Pseudogobio esocinus were infected 100% with the metacercaria, on the other hand, the fishes caught in the reservoir showed the lower infestation rates, and a few metacercariae found in the fishes Carassius carassius and Cyprinus carpio in the reservoir and the stream. The majority of metacercariae was detected only on the scales of fishes. In order to know the infectivity and the distribution patterns in the intestine of hosts, rats and dogs were infected with the metacercariae obtained from O. bidens and Z. platypus. In addition the metacercariae obtained from Z. temmincki, P. esocinus and goldfish were given to the rats. The recovery rates of the worms in the small intestine of dogs were higher (63.3-65.8%) than those of the rats (3.5-31.6%). The flukes were found mostly in the middle and the lower part of small tntestine of the rats and the dogs, but no worm was collected in the upper part of the intestine of rats. The size of adult flukes varied by the hosts. In the adult flukes, oral sucker was smaller than ventral sucker, and the right and left testes were located diagonally, the uterine tubules circled around the upper left testis. The average egg size was 29.1 × 17.7 µm. According to the above results, the flukes belonging to genus Metagonimus distributed along the Geum River was concluded to be identical with Miyata type of M. yokogawai as that Saito had proposed.

Figures


Fig. 1
Map of the snails and fish collected spots.

st. 1: LOdong-ri, Hoenam-myeon, Hoedeog-gun, Chungcheong Bug-do,

st. 2: Janggye-ri, Annae-myeon, Ogcheon-gun, Chungcheong Bug-do,

st. 3: Cheonnae-ri, Jewon-myeon, Geumsan-gun, Chungcheong Nam-do,

st. 4: Uggog-ri Jewon-myeon, Geumsan-gun, Chungcheong Nam-do,

st. 5: Sinchon-ri, Buri-myeon, Geumsan-gun, Chungcheong Nam-do,

st. 6: Sutong-ri, Buri-myeon, Geumsan-gun, Chungcheong Nam-do,

st. 7: Samgeo-ri, muju-eub, Muju-gun, Jeonla Bug-do,

st. 8: Socheon-ri, Seolcheon-myeon, Muju-gun, Jeonla Bug-do,

Note: ◦ fish caught, ▴ snails collected.



Fig. 2
Cercariae from the Semisulcospira globus collected in the upper stream of Geum River.

A: Cercaria of parapleurolophocercous type.

B: Pseudexorchis major (3 oral spines on anterior row).

C: Metagonimus species (4 oral spines on anterior row).

D: Metagonimus species (5 oral spines on anterior row).



Fig. 3
Metacercariae of Metagonimus spp. from O. bidens (right) and Z. platypus (left).


Fig. 4
Adult of Metagonimus sp. from dogs.

A: Adult (metacercaria obtained from O. bidens).

B: Adult (metacercaria obtained from Z. platypus).

C: Schematic drawing of the "A" specimen.

D:Egg.



Fig. 5
Comparison of the adult sizes from different hosts.

Tables


Table 1
Naturally emerged cercariae from the Semisulcospira globus caught in the upper stream of the Geum River (May-June, 1986)


Table 2
Experimental infection of Metagonimus cercaria* to goldfish and the metacercarial distribution in the fish


Table 3
Prevalence of metacercaria of Metagonimus among fresh water fishes caught in the Daecheong Reservoir and the upper stream of the Geum River


Table 4
Distribution of the adult Metagonimus in small intestine of experimentally infected animals


Table 5
The size of fresh adult fluke and egg from dogs infected with metacercariae obtained from Opsariichthys bidens and Zacco platypus


Table 6
The comparison with morphology and related life cycle among four types of Metagonimus flukes

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