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Korean J Parasitol > Volume 3(3):1965 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1965 Dec;3(3):86-106. English.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1965.3.3.86
Copyright © 1965 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Studies on the molluscicidal and cercariacidal effects of various pesticides in liver fluke
Jung Man Kim, M.D.
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Korea.
Abstract

Clonorchiasis for which no specific therapy is available has been recognized as one of the serious public health problems in terms of waste of human productivity in Korea today and an urgent consideration must be given to its prevention and control.

For past several years, the author has been finding that the infection rate of liver fluke in fish from the Kum-Ho river which has long been recognized as the world's notorious prevalent area of the disease, has been decreasing gradually.

Here the author formulated the hypothesis that the decreasing of infection rate might be influenced by the common use of pesticide in plants along the river. Basing this hypothesis, the effective use of pesticide may contribute to the control of the disease by cutting the life cycle of liver fluke.

To test above hypothesis, molluscicidal effect on Parafossarulus manchouricus and cercariacidal effect of various pesticides in liver fluke have been determined and the following results were obtained.

1. In molluscicidal effect, the most potent agent in low concentration was Bayer 73 which is 3 to 70 times stronger than other pesticides. When compared with NaPCP which has been widely used for the eradication of Onchomelania, Bayer 73 shows 5 to 10 times stronger effect.

The order of pesticide in molluscicidal effect was: Bayer 73, Nicotin, NaPCP, Sevin, Parathion, Copper sulfate and Lindane.

2. In cercariacidal effect, the most potent agent was Parathion which had 2 to 5 times stronger effect than Bayer 73 or NaPCP. The order of pesticide in the cercariacidal effect was: Parathion, Bayer73, NaPCP, Lindane, Nicotin,Sevin, and Copper sulfate.

3. By applying the common used concentration of pesticides considering the toxicity to plants, Bayer 73 is most potent in molluscicidal effect and then Nicotin, NaPCP, Copper sulfate, Sevin, Parathion and Lindane in order.

In cercariacidal effect, Parathion is the most potent and NaPCP, Bayer 73, Lindane, and Copper sulfate are followed.

4. Considering with the toxicity to human body the most safe and effective pesticides were Bayer 73, Seven, NaPCP, and Copper sulfate but among those agents, Bayer 73 and NaPCP show relatively stronger effect in both Parafossarulus manchouricus and cercaria of liver fluke.

Figures


Fig. 1
Comparison of the molluscicidal effects of various pesticides with 1:1000 dilution.


Fig. 2
Comparison of the molluscicidal effects of various pesticides with 1:5000 dilution.


Fig. 3
Comparison of the cercaria-cidal effects of various pesticides with 1:1000 dilution.


Fig. 4
Comparison of the cercaria-cidal effects of various pesticides with 1:5000 dilution.

Tables


Table 1
Comparison of the rates of infection of Clonorchis sinensis to fishes (between the year of 1956 and 1960)


Table 2
Effects of Parathion on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 3
Molluscicidal effects of Parathion on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 4
Effects for Nicotin on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 5
Molluscicidal effects of Nicotin on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 6
Molluscicidal effects of Copper sulfate on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 7
Molluscicidal effects of Sevin on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 8
Molluscicidal effects of Bayer 73 on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 9
Effects of Lindane on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 10
Molluscicidal effects of Lindane on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 11
Molluscicidal effects of NaPCP on Parafossarulus manchouricus by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 25℃-27℃)


Table 12
Molluscicidal effects of various pesticides on Parafossarulus manchouricus on Same condition (Room temp. 25℃-29℃)


Table 13
Resistance of cercaria to Parathion by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 29℃-31℃)


Table 14
Resistance of cercaria to Nicotin by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 28℃-31℃)


Table 15
Resistance of cercaria to CuSO4 by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 29℃-31℃)


Table 16
Resistance of cercaria to Lindane by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 28℃-32℃)


Table 17
Resistance of cercaria to Bayer 73 by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 27℃-31℃)


Table 18
Resistance of cercaria to Sevin by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 27℃-31℃)


Table 19
Resistance of cercaria to NaPCP by the time passing and the concentration of the drug (Room temp. 27℃-31℃)


Table 20
Comparison of the resistance of cercaria to various pesticides in same condition (Room temp. 29℃-31℃)


Table 21
LD50 of various pesticides on Parafossarulus manchouricus which is exposed for forty-eight and sixty hours (Room temp. 25℃-29℃)


Table 22
Lethal time in 50 and 100% of Parafossarulus manchouricus at regular concentration of Pesticides (Room temp. 25℃-29℃)


Table 23
LD50 of various pesticides on cercaria which is exposed for eight and fifteen hours (Room temp. 29℃-31℃)


Table 24
Lethal time in 50 and 100% of cercaria at regular concentration of pesticides (Room temp. 29℃-30℃)

References
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