| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact us |  
Korean J Parasitol > Volume 33(4):1995 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1995 Dec;33(4):349-356. English.
Published online Dec 20, 1995.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1995.33.4.349
Copyright © 1995 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Effect of sodium nitrite on Trichomonas vaginalis
Jae-Sook Ryu,*Joong-Wha Park and Duk-Young Min
Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea.
Received October 21, 1995; Accepted November 13, 1995.


We have investigated the action of sodium nitrite on the growth and morphologic changes of T. vaginalis and on the treatment of subcutaneous abscess by trichomonad in mice. Sodium nitrite inhibited the growth of metronidazole-sensitive KT9 isolate and metronidazole- resistant CDC85 strain of T. vaginalis as concentration of 6 mM and 10 mM, respectively. Intraperitoneal injection of sodium nitrite (70 µg, 100 µg, 130 µg/g body weight) did not reduce the size of abscess produced by subcutaneous inoculation of T. vaginalis in mice. T. vaginalis, treated with sodium nitrite at concentration giving about 50% inhibition of growth, showed fissures, many vacuoles and electron-translucent zone in the cytoplasm by transmission electron microscopy. In the case of CDC85 treated with 9 mM sodium nitrite, hydrogenosomal matrical change, destruction of hydrogenosomal membrane, autophagic vacuoles, disappearance of Golgi complex and polysome were notably observed. With above results, it is assumed that sodium nitrite inhibits the growth of metronidazole-sensitive and--resistant strains of T. vaginalis and induces the morphological changes of T. vaginalis although it does not affect in reducing of abscess size by T. vaginalis in mice.


Figs. 1-4
Fig. 1. A normal T. vaginalis KT9 with a nucleus, hydrogenosomes, Golgi complex and vacuoles are present (×12,000). Fig. 2.T. vaginalis KT9 treated with 4 mM NaNO2. Many vacuoles, fissures and electron-translucent zone (ETZ) are present (×8,000). Fig. 3. Normal T. vaginalis CDC85 (×8,000). Fig. 4. T. vaginalis CDC85 treated with 6 mM NaNO2. Many fissures and vacules are illustrated (×8,000).

Figs. 5-8
T. vaginalis CDC85 treated with 9 mM NaNO2. Fig. 5. Ball-like trophozoite. Autophagic vacuoles and cytoplasmic matrix are widely present (×5,000). Fig. 6. Alteration of electron density of hydrogenosomal matrix and autophagic vacuoles are illustrated (×8,000). Fig. 7. Whirl-like fissure and many vacuoles are observed (×8,000). Fig. 8. Disrupted plasma membrane (arrow) and many autophagic vacuoles are illustrated (×5,000). A, axostyle; AV, autophagic vacuole; ETZ, electron-translucent zone; F, fissure; GC, Golgi complex; GV Golgi vesicle; HG, hydrogenosome; M, cytoplasmic matrix; N, nucleus; RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum; RF, recurrent flagellum; UM, undulating membrane; V, vacuole; VE, vesicle.


Table 1
Minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole for T. vaginalis isolates

Table 2
Effect of sodium nitrite on metronidazole-sensitive KT9 isolate and metronidazole-resistant CDC85 strain of T. vaginalis survival in culture medium

Table 3
Effect of sodium nitrite against subcutaneous infection with metronidazole-sensitive KT9 isolate and metronidazole-resistant CDC86 strain of T. vaginalis in mice

1. Alspaugh JA, Granger DL. Inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans replication by nitrogen oxides supports the role of these molecules as effectors of macrophage-mediated cytostasis. Infect Immun 1991;59(7):2291–2296.
2. Baskin SI, Horowitz AM, Nealley EW. The antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. J Clin Pharmacol 1992;32(4):368–375.
3. Carosi G, Filice G, Suter F, Dei Cas A. Trichomonas vaginalis: effect of tinidazole on ultrastructure in vitro. Exp Parasitol 1977;43(2):315–325.
4. Diamond LS. The establishment of various trichomonads of animals and man in axenic cultures. J Parasitol 1957;43(4):488–490.
5. Johnson PJ. Metronidazole and drug resistance. Parasitol Today 1993;9(5):183–186.
6. Kulda J, Vojtechovska M, Tachezy J, Demes P, Kunzova E. Metronidazole resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis as a cause of treatment failure in trichomoniasis--A case report. Br J Vener Dis 1982;58(6):394–399.
7. Legator MS, et al. Science 1975;188:118–119.
8. Lin JY, Chadee K. Macrophage cytotoxicity against Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites is mediated by nitric oxide from L-arginine. J Immunol 1992;148(12):3999–4005.
9. Meingassner JG, Havelec L, Mieth H. Studies on strain sensitivity of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole. Br J Vener Dis 1978;54(2):72–76.
10. Meingassner JG, Thurner J. Strain of Trichomonas vaginalis resistant to metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1979;15(2):254–257.
11. Muller M. Sympasia Soc General Microbiol 1980;30:127–142.
12. Muller M, Lossick JG, Gorrell TE. In vitro susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole and treatment outcome in vaginal trichomoniasis. Sex Transm Dis 1988;15(1):17–24.
13. Muller M, Meingassner JG, Miller WA, Ledger WJ. Three metronidazole-resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis from the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1980;138(7 Pt 1):808–812.
14. Paulet G. [New perspectives in the treatment of hydrocyanide intoxication]. Arch Mal Prof 1961;22:120–127.
15. Payne MJ, Woods LF, Gibbs P, Cammack R. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of the inhibition of the phosphoroclastic system of Clostridium sporogenes by nitrite. J Gen Microbiol 1990;136(10):2067–2076.
16. Payne MJ, Glidewell C, Cammack R. Interactions of iron-thiol-nitrosyl compounds with the phosphoroclastic system of Clostridium sporogenes. J Gen Microbiol 1990;136(10):2077–2087.
17. Rockett KA, Awburn MM, Cowden WB, Clark IA. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro by nitric oxide derivatives. Infect Immun 1991;59(9):3280–3283.
18. Rosenkranz HS, Speck WT. Mutagenicity of metronidazole: activation by mammalian liver microsomes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1975;66(2):520–525.
19. Ryu JS, Lloyd D. Cell cytotoxicity of sodium nitrite, sodium nitroprusside and Roussin's black salt against Trichomonas vaginalis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1995;130(2-3):183–187.
20. Smith RP, Layne WR. A comparison of the lethal effects of nitrite and hydroxylamine in the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1969;165(1):30–35.
21. Waitkins SA, Thomas DJ. Isolation of Trichomonas vaginalis resistant to metronidazole. Lancet 1981;2(8246):590.
22. Woods LF, Wood JM, Gibbs PA. the involvement of Nitric Oxide in the inhibition of the phosphoroclastic system in Clostridium sporogenes by sodium nitrite. J Gen Microbiol 1981;125(2):399–406.
23. Yarlett N, Gorrell TE, Marczak R, M. ller M. Reduction of nitroimidazole derivatives by hydrogenosomal extracts of Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol Biochem Parasitol 1985;14(1):29–40.
Editorial Office
c/o Department of Medical Environmental Biology
Chung-AngUniversity College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
Tel: +82-2-820-5683   Fax: +82-2-826-1123   E-mail: kjp.editor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © 2019 by The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved.     powerd by m2community