Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Fish from Water Systems of Seomjin-gang (River)

Article information

Korean J Parasitol. 2017;55(3):305-312
Publication date (electronic) : 2017 June 30
doi : https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2017.55.3.305
1Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea
2Division of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, National Research Institute of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong 28159, Korea
3Division of Microorganism, Jeollabuk-do Institute of Health and Environment, Imsil 55928, Korea
4Division of Microbiology, Jeollanam-do Institute of Health and Environment, Muan 58568, Korea
*Corresponding author (wmsohn@gnu.ac.kr)
Received 2017 March 21; Revised 2017 May 18; Accepted 2017 May 20.

Abstract

The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fish from the water systems of Seomjin-gang (River), the Republic of Korea. Total 1,604 fish from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang were examined by artificial digestion methods. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 102 (39.8%) out of 256 fish (14 species) from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Osucheon (22.3% in 6 fish species) in Imsil-gun, and Seomjin-gang (63.9% in 9 fish species) in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Their average density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were also found in 132 (48.0%) out of 275 fish (12 spp.) from the middle reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Songdaecheon (58.9% in 4 fish species) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do, and Seomjin-gang (45.2% in 10 fish species) in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do. Their average density was 21.0 per infected fish. CsMc were detected in 77 (56.6%) out of 136 fish (11 species) from the lower reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Seomjin-gang (73.3% in 11 fish species) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, and Namsancheon (8.6% in 1 fish species) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Their average density was 64.9 per infected fish. The metacercariae of Metorchis orientalis were also detected in 6 fish species from 4 sites of Seomjin-gang. Conclusively, it has been confirmed that CsMc are more or less prevalent in fish from some water systems of Seomjin-gang in Korea.

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, Clonorchis sinensis is the most important helminth in aspects of the prevalence and clinical significance in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The endemicity of this trematode infection, clonorchiasis, has maintained at relatively high levels in riverside areas [18]. Seo et al. [1] reported the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among the riverside residents in 7 major rivers, i.e., Nakdong-gang (River) (40.2%), Youngsan-gang (30.8%), Seomjin-gang (17.3%), Tamjin-gang (15.9%), Han-gang (15.7%), Gum-gang (12.0%), and Mangyeong-gang (8.0%). In 2008, Cho et al. [5] reported the egg positive rates of residents living in 4 major river basins, Nakdong-gang (17.1%), Seomjin-gang (11.2%), Youngsan-gang (5.5%), and Gum-gang (4.6%), located in southern parts of Korea. Recently, the prevalence of C. sinensis infection in adjacent residents of 5 major rivers, i.e., Nakdong-gang (11.7%), Seomjin-gang (9.9%), Gum-gang (6.5%), Youngsan-gang (3.1%), and Han-gang (1.0%), were reported by Jeong et al. [8]. By the nationwide survey on helminthic infections in Korea (2012), the prevalence of clonorchiasis was 1.9%, and 932,540 residents with this endemic disease were estimated to be infected, which is the highest value among the prevalences of helminthiasis in Korea [7].

On the other hand, freshwater fish, the source of infections, collected from various endemic riverside areas were examined by many Korean workers to estimate the endemicities of clonorchiasis. More than 48 fish species have been reported in Korea as the second intermediate hosts of C. sinensis [915]. Especially, in 2008, Kim et al. [12] widely surveyed 677 freshwater fish (21 species) from 34 localities to know the infection status with C. sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in Korea. They examined fish from 2 sites, Imsil-gun (29 fish of 4 species), Jeollabuk-do, and Gokseong-gun (45 fish of 10 species), Jeollanam-do, as the fish from water systems of Seomjin-gang. In 2011, Cho et al. [14] investigated the infection status of CsMc in freshwater fish from 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by the latitude levels of the Korean peninsula. They also examined fish from 2 sites, Gokseong-gun (191 fish of 22 species) and Gurye-gun (68 fish of 14 species), Jeollanam-do, as the fish from Seomjin-gang. Cho et al. [15] surveyed on the prevalence of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from Gangwon-do, Korea. Recently, Sohn et al. [16] investigated the infection status of trematode metacercariae, including C. sinensis, in freshwater fish from the water systems of Hantan-gang and Imjin-gang located in relatively northern regions of Korea. However, freshwater fish from the water systems of Seomjin-gang has not been widely and systematically examined. It is seriously needed to reveal the infection status of CsMc in fish from water systems of Seomjin-gang. Therefore, we performed the present study to investigate the prevalence of CsMc in freshwater fish from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fish collection

We collected total 1,604 freshwater fish from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Osucheon (“cheon” means stream) (latitude: 38.43268; longitude: 127.4375) in Imsil-gun, Seomjin-gang (38.23047; 127.2179) in Sunchang-gun, Songdaecheon (38.23047; 127.2179) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do, Seomjin-gang (38.23047; 127.2179) in Gokseong-gun, Seomjin-gang (37.94375; 127.07142) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, and Hoengcheon (38.0855; 127.07264) and Namsancheon (38.01408; 127.2088) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, for 5 years (2012–2016) (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

The surveyed areas in the water systems of Seomjin-gang (River). ① Osucheon (latitude: 38.43268; longitude: 127.4375) in Imsil-gun, ②Seomjin-gang (38.23047; 127.2179) in Sunchang-gun, ③Songdaecheon (38.23047; 127.2179) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do (JB), ④ Seomjin-gang (38.23047; 127.2179) in Gokseong-gun, ⑤Seomjin-gang (37.94375; 127.07142) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do (JN), ⑥ Hoengcheon (38.0855; 127.07264) and ⑦ Namsancheon (38.01408; 127.2088) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do (GN), Korea.

Fish examined from upper reaches of Seomjin-gang

Total 236 freshwater fish in 11 species (no. of fish examined) were collected from Osucheon in Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do (2012 and 2013), which included Zacco platypus (80), Hemibarbus labeo (56), Squalidus chankaensis tsuchigae (35), Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis (21), Squalidus japonicus coreanus (20), Microphysogobio jeoni (6), Acanthorhodeus gracilis (6), Pseudogobio esocinus (5), Carassius auratus (3), Rhodeus ocellatus (3), and Hemibarbus longirostris (1).

Total 310 freshwater fish in 29 species were collected from Seomjin-gang in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do (2014 and 2015), which included Pungtungia herzi (56), Z. platypus (51), P. esocinus (32), Coreoperca herzi (19), Zacco koreanus (15), O. uncirostris amurensis (14), C. auratus (14), Acheilognathus koreensis (12), Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae (12), S. japonicus coreanus (11), Acheilognathus rhombeus (10), Siniperca scherzeri (10), Odontobutis platycephala (9), Squalidus gracilis majimae (6), A. gracilis (6), Gnathopogon strigatus (5), H. longirostris (5), H. labeo (4), Coreoleuciscus splendidus (4), Plecoglossus altivelis (3), Acheilognathus yamatsutae (3), Abbottina springeri (3), Cyprinus carpio (2), Cobitis tetralineata (2), Acheilognathus lanceolatus (1), Acanthorhodeus macropterus (1), Hemiculter leucisculus (1), Cobitis lutheri (1), and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (1).

Fish examined from middle reaches of Seomjin-gang

Total 196 freshwater fish in 14 species collected from Songdaecheon in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do were examined in 2012 and 2013. They included Z. koreanus (57), P. herzi (47), Z. platypus (46), Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (21), C. herzi (6), Microphysogobio koreensis (5), C. auratus (3), G. strigatus (2), S. gracilis majimae (2), Pseudorasbora parva (2), A. springeri (2), P. esocinus (1), Iksookimia longicorpus (1), and Lepomis macrochirus (1).

Total 289 freshwater fish in 15 species collected from Seomjin-gang in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do were examined in 2015 and 2016. They included Z. koreanus (52), Z. platypus (43), C. splendidus (37), S. variegatus wakiyae (31), S. japonicus coreanus (27), P. herzi (22), H. longirostris (20), P. esocinus (16), M. koeensis (16), C. herzi (11), Acheilognathus majusculus (6), P. altivelis (3), H. labeo (2), O. uncirostris amurensis (2), and Ladislabia taczanowskii (1).

Fish examined from lower reaches of Seomjin-gang

Total 183 freshwater fish in 21 species were collected from Seomjin-gang in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do (2014), which included Z. platypus (24), P. herzi (21), Z. koreanus (14), S. japonicus coreanus (15), Sarcocheilichthys nigripinnis morii (14), O. uncirostris amurensis (13), A. rhombeus (11), C. herzi (10), H. labeo (10), S. gracilis majimae (8), M. koreensis (6), C. auratus (5), A. rivularis (5), A. gracilis (5), O. platycephala (4), P. parva (3), P. altivelis (3), A. lanceolatus (3), H. longirostris (1), and S. scherzeri (1).

Total 156 freshwater fish in 13 species were collected from Hoengcheon in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do in 2014 and 2016, which included Z. koreanus (35), A. koreensis (27), Z. platypus (27), P. herzi (16), C. herzi (11), Zacco temminckii (10), H. longirostris (8), P. esocinus (8), A. springeri (7), C. splendidus (4), S. gracilis majimae (1), C. auratus (1), and O. platycephala (1).

Total 234 freshwater fish in 12 species were collected from Namsancheon in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do in 2015 and 2016, which included Z. koreanus (57), P. esocinus (46), Z. platypus (41), P. herzi (35), C. auratus (16), H. longirostris (14), Z. temminckii (11), A. koreensis (7), S. gracilis majimae (3), A. gracilis (2), C. splendidus (1), and O. platycephala (1).

Examination methods

All collected fish with ice were transferred to the laboratory of the Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Korea. After identification of fish species, they were individually ground with a mortar or a grinder. Each ground fish meat was mixed with artificial gastric juice, and the mixture was incubated at 36°C for 2 hr. The digested material was filtered with 1×1 mm of mesh, and washed with 0.85% saline until the supernatant became clear. The sediment was carefully examined under a stereomicroscope. Each species of zoonotic trematode metacercariae were separately collected by the general feature [1,2], and they were counted to get hold of infection rates (%) and densities (no. of metacercariae per infected fish) by fish species.

RESULTS

Infection status of fish from upper reaches of Seomjin-gang

The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 102 (39.8%) out of 256 fish in 14 species from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Osucheon in Imsil-gun, and Seomjin-gang in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Their average density was 9.0 per fish infected. Among 236 freshwater fish in 11 species collected from Osucheon, 33 (14.0%) in 6 species (54.6%), i.e., Z. platypus, S. chankaensis tsuchigae, O. uncirostris amurensis, M. jeoni, P. esocinus, and H. longirostris, were infected with CsMc. Total 69 (22.3%) freshwater fish in 9 species (31.0%), i.e., P. herzi, S. variegatus wakiyae, S. japonicus coreanus, A. rhombeus, S. gracilis majimae, H. longirostris, H. labeo, A. yamatsutae, and H. leucisculus, out of 310 fish in 29 species collected from Seomjin-gang in Sunchang-gun were infected with CsMc. Their infection status with CsMc by the fish species and surveyed areas was shown in Table 1.

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang (River)

Infection status of fish from middle reaches of Seomjin-gang

The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 132 (48.0%) out of 275 fish in 12 species from the middle reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Songdaecheon in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do, and Seomjin-gang in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do. Their average density was 21.0 per infected fish. Among 196 freshwater fish in 14 species collected in Songdaecheon, 33 fish (16.8%) in 4 species (28.6%), i.e., P. herzi, M. koreensis, G. strigatus, and S. gracilis majimae, were infected with CsMc. Total 99 (34.3%) freshwater fish in 10 species (66.7%), i.e., Z. platypus, C. splendidus, S. variegatus wakiyae, S. japonicus coreanus, P. herzi, H. longirostris, M. koeensis, P. esocinus, A. majusculus, and L. taczanowskii, out of 289 fish in 15 species collected from Seomjin-gang in Gokseong-gun were infected with CsMc. The infection status with CsMc by the fish species and surveyed areas are shown in Table 2.

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from the middle reaches of Seomjingang (River)

Infection status of fish from lower reaches of Seomjin-gang

The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 77 (56.6%) out of 136 fish in 11 species from the lower reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Seomjin-gang in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, and Namsancheon in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Their average density was 64.9 per infected fish. Among 183 freshwater fish in 21 species collected in Seomjin-gang in Gurye-gun, 74 fish (40.4%) in 11 species (52.4%), i.e., P. herzi, S. japonicus coreanus, S. nigripinnis morii, A. rhombeus, H. labeo, S. gracilis majimae, M. koreensis, A. rivularis, A. gracilis, P. parva, P. altivelis, and A. lanceolatus, were infected with CsMc. No metacercariae were detected in total 156 freshwater fish in 13 species collected from Hoengcheon in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Total 339 C. sinensis metacercariae were found in only 3 P. herzi among 234 freshwater fish in 12 species collected from Namsancheon in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Their infection status by the fish species and surveyed areas are shown in Table 3.

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from the lower reaches of Seomjingang (River)

Infection status of Metorchis orientalis metacercariae in fish from Seomjin-gang

The metacercariae of M. orientalis were detected in fish from Seomjin-gang in Sunchang-gun, Songdaecheon in Namwon-si, Seomjin-gang in Gurye-gun, and Hoengcheon in Hadong-gun. Their infection status by the fish species and surveyed areas are shown in Table 4.

Infection status of Metorchis orientalis metacercariae by the species of fish caught from water systems of Seomjingang (River)

DISCUSSION

By the present study, it has been confirmed that CsMc are more or less prevalent in fish from Seomjin-gang. The total positive rate, 19.4%, and average metacercarial density, 27.9 per infected fish, were not so high (Table 5). However, the infection status was revealed with a certain trend in positive fish groups according to the surveyed localities tentatively divided; upper, middle, and lower reaches. The prevalences were 39.8%, 48.0%, and 56.6%, and metacercarial densities were 9.0, 21.0, and 64.9 per fish infected, respectively. Metacercarial densities in fish from upper to lower reaches, i.e., Osucheon in Imsil-gun, Seomjin-gang in Sunchang-gun, Songdaecheon in Namwon-si, Seomjin-gang in Gokseong-gun, and Seomjin-gang in Gurye-gun, were 4.4, 11.1, 16.7, 22.5, and 63.0 per infected fish, respectively. These findings suggested that the endemicity of CsMc is much higher in fish from lower reaches of Seomjin-gang.

Comparison of the infection statusa) of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in fishes from 3 reaches of Seomjingang

The sampling of fish is one of the important factors in the successful metacercarial surveys to determine the epidemiology of trematode infections. Total 1,604 fish were collected from 7 localities in the water systems of Seomjin-gang in this study. The fish were tentatively grouped according to the surveyed areas, those of upper (546 fish: 34.0%), middle (485: 30.2%), and lower (573: 35.7%) reaches. The number of fish examined in each of these 3 reaches was relatively even. The pale chub (312: 19.5%), Z. platypus, was the most dominant fish species, and followed by the Korean chub (230: 14.3%), Z. koreanus, and the striped shinner (197: 12.3%), P. herzi, among the fish species examined in this study. The numbers of the pale chub examined in 3 reaches were 131 (upper: 42.0%), 89 (middle: 28.5%), and 92 (lower: 29.5%). Those of the Korean chub were 15 (6.5%), 109 (47.4%), and 106 (46.1%), and of the striped shinner were 56 (28.4%), 69 (35.0%), and 72 (36.6%). According to the above findings, the pale chub was collected more in the upper than in the middle and lower reaches, The Korean chub was collected more in the middle and lower reaches than in the upper reaches, and the striped shinner was relatively evenly collected in 3 reaches.

Total 48 fish species (in 34 genera, 7 families) have been reported as the second intermediate hosts of C. sinensis in Korea [915]. In the present study, CsMc were found in 24 fish species, i.e., A. rivularis, A. gracilis, A. lanceolatus, A. majuscules, A. rhombeus, A. yamatsutae, C. splendidus, G. strigatus, H. labeo, H. longirostris, H. leucisculus, L. taczanowskii, M. koreensis, M. jeoni, O. uncirostris, P. esocinus, P. herzi, P. parva, S. nigripinnis morii, S. variegates wakiyae, S. chankaensis tsuchigae, S. gracilis majimae, S. japonicus coreanus, and Z. platypus. They all had been listed as the second intermediate hosts of C. sinensis in Korea [915]. The striped shinner was used as an index fish species to compare the endemicities of C. sinensis infection in 3 reaches in the present study. However, the metacercarial positive rates (prevalence) in this fish species were 80.4%, 72.5%, and 30.6%, whereas the metacercarial densities were 15.2, 46.1, and 175.9 per infected fish in the upper, middle, and lower reaches, respectively (Table 5). In the distribution pattern of CsMc in another susceptible fish, P. parva, the prevalence is proportionally correlated with the metacercarial density in certain areas [1720]. This reverse phenomenon is questionable, and it should be solved in the near future.

Kim et al. [12] detected CsMc in 3 fish species, P. parva, Acheilognathus intermedia and Odontobutis interrupta, from Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do and also in 3 fish species, P. parva, Zacco temminckii, and O. interrupta, from Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do in the examination of the fish from water systems of Seomjin-gang (total 74 fish of 11 species). Their infection rates and densities were not so high except for P. parva from Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do, when we compared them with our findings of Imsil-gun and Gokseong-gun. Fish from Seomjin-gang in Gokseong-gun (191 fish in 22 species) and Gurye-gun (68 fish in 14 species), Jeollanam-do were also examined in Cho et al. [14]. The prevalences were 35.3% and 66.1%, and densities were 59.4 and 37.6 per fish infected in fish from above 2 regions, respectively. However, the prevalences were 45.2% and 73.3%, and densities were 22.5 and 63.0 per fish infected in this study. From the above comparisons, it was confirmed that the metacercarial endemicity in fish from Gurye-gun is much higher in this study than in Cho et al. [14].

According to recent studies, CsMc were found in fish from the water system of Imjin-gang and Hantan-gang located in the northern part of Korea, although their prevalences and densities were very low [1416]. However, CsMc were not detected in fish from the water systems of Han-gang in Gangwon-do [14,15]. In fish from Geum-gang, the prevalence and density of CsMc were also revealed in low levels [14]. They showed moderate levels in fish from Yeongsan-gang and Seomjin-gang in Jeollanam-do [14] like those in this study. However, fish from Tamjin-gang in Gangjin-gun, Jeollanam-do and Nakdong-gang in 3 localities of Gyeongsangbuk-do, and Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were highly infected with CsMc [14]. By the present study, it has been confirmed that CsMc are more or less prevalent in fish from some water systems of Seomjin-gang in Korea.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by an Anti-Communicable Diseases Control Program, no. 2014E5400200, under the title “Investigation of fish-borne parasites and acquisition of their biological resources in the southern regions of Korea”, National Institute of Health (NIH), Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDCP). We thank Jung-A Kim and Hee-Ju Kim (Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Korea) for their help in the examination of fish.

Notes

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors have no conflicts of interest concerning the work reported in this paper.

References

1. Seo BS, Lee SH, Cho SY, Chai JY, Hong ST, Han IS, Sohn JS, Cho BH, Ahn SR, Lee SK, Chung SC, Kang KS, Shim HS, Hwang IS. An epidemiologic study on clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis in riverside areas in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 1981;19:137–150.
2. Rim HJ. The current pathobiology and chemotherapy of clonorchiasis. Korean J Parasitol 1986;24( suppl):1–141.
3. Korean Association of Health Promotion (KAHP). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Korea-the 7th Report Seoul, Korea: KAHP; 2004. p. 1–275. (in Korean).
4. Hong ST, Hong SJ. Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis in Korea. Food-Borne Helminthiasis in Asia. Asian Parasitology 2005;1:35–56.
5. Cho SH, Lee KY, Lee BC, Cho PY, Cheun HI, Hong ST, Sohn WM, Kim TS. Prevalence of clonorchiasis in southern endemic areas of Korea in 2006. Korean J Parasitol 2008;46:133–137.
6. Kim TS, Cho SH, Huh S, Kong Y, Sohn WM, Hwang SS, Chai JY, Lee SH, Park YK, Oh DK, Lee JK. A nationwide survey on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004. Korean J Parasitol 2009;47:37–47.
7. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea National Institute of Health. National survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Korea, 2012. The 8th Report Osong, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea: 2013.
8. Jeong YI, Shin HE, Lee SE, Cheun HI, Ju JW, Kim JY, Park MY, Cho SH. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection among residents along 5 major rivers in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2016;54:215–219.
9. Sohn WM, Choi YS. Infection status with trematode metacercariae in the fresh-water fish from Chunamchosuchi (pond), Uichang-gun, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 1997;35:165–170.
10. Kong HH, Choi BR, Moon CH, Choi DW. Larval digenetic trematodes from freshwater fish in river Miryang, Korea. Jpn J Parasitol 1995;44:112–118.
11. Joo JY, Chung MS, Kim SJ, Kang CM. Changing patterns of Clon orchis sinensis infections in Kyongbuk, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 1997;35:155–164.
12. Kim EM, Kim JL, Choi SY, Kim JW, Kim S, Choi MH, Bae YM, Lee SH, Hong ST. Infection status of freshwater fish with metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea. Korean J Paraitol 2008;46:247–251.
13. Sohn WM. Fish-borne zoonotic trematode metacercariae in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2009;47( suppl):103–113.
14. Cho SH, Sohn WM, Na BK, Kim TS, Kong Y, Eom K, Seok WS, Lee T. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from three latitudinal regions of the Korean Peninsula. Korean J Parasitol 2011;49:385–398.
15. Cho SH, Lee WJ, Kim TS, Seok WS, Lee TJ, Jeong KJ, Na BK, Sohn WM. Prevalence of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from Gangwon-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2014;52:399–412.
16. Sohn WM, Na BK, Cho SH, Lee SW, Choi SB, Seok WS. Trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from water systems of Hantangang and Imjingang in Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2015;53:289–298.
17. Kang SY, Kim SI, Cho SY. Seasonal variations of metacercarial density of Clonorchis sinensis in fish intermediate host, Pseudorasbora parva. Korean J Parasitol 1985;23:87–94.
18. Kim YK, Kang SY, Lee SH. Study on the frequency distribution of the metacercarial density of Clonorchis sinensis in fish host, Pseudorasbora parva. Korean J Parasitol 1979;17:127–311. (in Korean).
19. Kim KH, Yie JH, Joo KH, Lee JS, Rim HJ. Studies on the infection rate and distribution pattern of metacercaria of Clonorchis sinensis in Pseudorasbora parva. Korean J Rural Med 1989;14:44–53. (in Korean).
20. Park JK, Chung DI, Choi DW. Relationship between infestation with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae and length of freshwater fish. Kyungpook Univ Med J 1991;32:297–304.

Article information Continued

Fig. 1

The surveyed areas in the water systems of Seomjin-gang (River). ① Osucheon (latitude: 38.43268; longitude: 127.4375) in Imsil-gun, ②Seomjin-gang (38.23047; 127.2179) in Sunchang-gun, ③Songdaecheon (38.23047; 127.2179) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do (JB), ④ Seomjin-gang (38.23047; 127.2179) in Gokseong-gun, ⑤Seomjin-gang (37.94375; 127.07142) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do (JN), ⑥ Hoengcheon (38.0855; 127.07264) and ⑦ Namsancheon (38.01408; 127.2088) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do (GN), Korea.

Table 1

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang (River)

Locality detected and fish sp. No.of fish examined No. (%) of fish infected No.of metacercariae

Total Range Average
Osucheon in Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do
Zacco platypus 80 1 (1.3) 5 - 5.0
Squalidus chankaensis 35 27 (77.1) 133 1–24 4.9
Opsariichthys uncirostris 21 2 (9.5) 2 - 1.0
Microphysogobio jeoni 6 1 (16.7) 2 - 2.0
Pseudogobio esocinus 5 1 (20.0) 1 - 1.0
Hemibarbus longirostris 1 1 (100.0) 3 - 3.0
 Subtotal 148 33 (22.3) 146 1–24 4.4

Seomjingang in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do
Pungtungia herzi 56 45 (80.4) 685 1–79 15.2
Sarcocheilichthys variegatus 12 7 (58.3) 46 1–17 6.6
Squalidus japonicus coreanus 11 6 (54.6) 20 1–5 3.3
Acheilognathus rhombeus 10 1 (10.0) 1 - 1.0
Squalidus gracilis majimae 6 6 (100.0) 12 1–3 2.0
Hemibarbus longirostris 5 1 (20.0) 1 - 1.0
Hemibarbus labeo 4 1 (25.0) 1 - 1.0
Acheilognathus yamatsutae 3 1 (33.3) 1 - 1.0
Hemiculter leucisculus 1 1 (100.0) 2 - 2.0
 Subtotal 108 69 (63.9) 769 1–79 11.1

Total 256 102 (39.8) 915 1–79 9.0

Table 2

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from the middle reaches of Seomjingang (River)

Locality and fish sp. No. of fish examined No. (%) of fish infected No. of metacercariae detected

Total Range Average
Songdaecheon in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do
Pungtungia herzi 47 28 (59.6) 499 1–92 17.8
Microphysogobio koeensis 5 2 (40.0) 8 1–7 4.0
Gnathopogon strigatus 2 1 (50.0) 28 - 28.0
Squalidus gracilis majimae 2 2 (100.0) 15 2–13 7.5
 Subtotal 56 33 (58.9) 550 1–92 16.7

Seomjingang in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do
Zacco platypus 43 1 (2.3) 1 - 1.0
Coreoleuciscus splendidus 37 6 (16.2) 7 1–2 1.2
Sarcocheilichthys variegatus 31 28 (90.3) 246 1–50 8.8
Squalidus japonicus coreanus 27 18 (66.7) 132 1–46 7.3
Pungtungia herzi 22 18 (66.7) 1,805 1–348 86.0
Hemibarbus longirostris 20 11 (55.0) 16 1–3 1.5
Microphysogobio koeensis 16 7 (43.8) 11 1–3 1.6
Pseudogobio esocinus 16 4 (25.0) 4 - 1.0
Acheilognathus majusculus 6 2 (33.3) 4 1–3 2.0
Ladislabia taczanowskii 1 1 (100.0) 1 - 1.0
 Subtotal 219 99 (45.2) 2,227 1–348 22.5

Total 275 132 (48.0) 2,777 1–348 21.0

Table 3

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from the lower reaches of Seomjingang (River)

Locality and fish sp. No. of fish examined No. (%) of fish infected No. of metacercariae detected

Total Range Average
Seomjingang in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do
Pungtungia herzi 21 19 (90.5) 3,531 1–1, 580 185.8
Squalidus japonicus coreanus 15 13 (86.7) 278 1–125 21.4
Sarcocheilichthys nigripinnis 14 11 (78.6) 85 1–41 7.7
Acheilognathus rhombeus 11 9 (81.8) 231 2–179 25.7
Hemibarbus labeo 10 2 (20.0) 2 - 1.0
Squalidus gracilis majimae 8 8 (100) 189 10–47 23.6
Microphysogobio koreensis 6 2 (33.3) 2 - 1.0
Acanthorhodeus gracilis 5 2 (40.0) 15 2–13 7.5
Abbottina rivularis 5 4 (80.0) 18 4–6 4.5
Pseudorasbora parva 3 3 (11) 307 67–128 102.3
Acheilognathus lanceolatus 3 1 (33.3) 1 - 1.0
 Subtotal 101 74 (73.3) 4,659 1–1, 580 63.0

Namsancheon in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
Pungtungia herzi 35 3 (8.6) 339 1–336 113.0

Total 136 77 (56.6) 4,998 1–1, 580 64.9

Table 4

Infection status of Metorchis orientalis metacercariae by the species of fish caught from water systems of Seomjingang (River)

Locality and fish sp. No. of fish examined No. (%) of fish infected No. of metacercariae detected

Total Range Average
Seomjingang in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do
Pungtungia herzi 56 5 (8.9) 8 1–4 1.6
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus 1 1 (100.0) 1 - 1.0
 Subtotal 57 6 (10.5) 9 1–4 1.5

Songdaecheon in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do
Pungtungia herzi 47 1 (2.1) 2 - 2.0
Microphysogobio koreensis 5 1 (20.0) 1 - 1.0
Gnathopogon strigatus 2 1 (50.0) 1 - 1.0
 Subtotal 54 3 (5.6) 4 1–2 1.3

Seomjingang in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do
Pungtungia herzi 21 3 (14.3) 4 1–2 1.3
Pungtungia herzi 5 1 (20.0) 1 - 1.0
Pseudorasbora parva 3 1 (33.3) 1 - 1.0
 Subtotal 29 5 (17.2) 6 1–2 1.2

Hoengcheongang in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
Pungtungia herzi 5 1 (20.0) 1 - 1.0
Total 275 132 (48.0) 2,777 1–348 21.0

Table 5

Comparison of the infection statusa) of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in fishes from 3 reaches of Seomjingang

Items Infection status of C. sinensis metacercariae in fishes from
Upper Middle Lower Total
No. (%) of fish examined 546 (34.0) 485 (30.2) 573 (35.7) 1,604 (100)
Total positive rate (%) 102/546 (18.7) 132/485 (27.2) 77/573 (13.4) 311/1,604 (19.4)
Total metacercarial density 9.0 21.0 64.9 27.9
No. (%) of P. herzi examined 56 (10.3) 69 (14.2) 72 (12.6) 197 (12.3)
Positive rate (%) in P. herzi 45/56 (80.4) 50/69 (72.5) 22/72 (30.6) 117/197 (59.4)
Metacercarial density in P. herzi 15.2 46.1 175.9 58.6
No. (%) of Z. platypus examined 131 (24.0) 89 (18.4) 92 (16.1) 312 (19.5)
a)

Positive rate: No. of fish infected/No. of fish examined ×100; metacercarial density: mean No. of metacercariae per fish infected.