| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact us |  
Korean J Parasitol > Volume 21(1):1983 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1983 Jun;21(1):58-74. English.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1983.21.1.58
Copyright © 1983 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
A study on intestinal lesions of experimentally reinfected dogs with Metagonimus yokogawai
Shin-Yong Kang,Seung-Yull Cho,Jong-Yil Chai,*Jung-Bin Lee,** and Du-Hwan Jang***
Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Korea.
*Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea.
**Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea.
***Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea.

The intestinal lesions were studied in dog metagonimiasis by reinfection. The metacercariae of M. yokogawai were collected from naturally infected sweetfish. A total of twenty dogs were divided into three groups; control, primary infection and reinfection groups.

The 18 dogs were infected with 10,000 metacercariae; the 5 dogs in primary infection group were killed at the 5 days in 1 week, 4 weeks, 6 weeks after the infection. The remaining 13 dogs were kept for nine weeks, and challenged again with 5,000 metacercaricae. The reinfected dogs were killed at the 1 day, 3 days, 5 days and 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks respectively.

The chronologic changes of the intestinal lesions in both groups, the worm recovery rate, and distribution patten were examined by gross observation, light and scanning electron microscopies.

From the results, it was inferred that the so-called spontaneous and/or self cure phenomena were of negligible importance in metagonimiasis in dogs. In the chronologic observations of pathologic process in intestine, it was also suggested that the host immunity tend to recover the intestinal integrity. And early invasion of young worm to the Lieberkuhn's crypt was considered as the primary cause of lesions of vill(Abstract is summarized again.)


Figs. 1-6
Fig. 1. On the 5th day in primary infection, the mucosal changes in jejunum are characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. The goblet cell numbers are reduced. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 2. On the 1st week of infection, the mucosa is covered by neorotic tissue and mucous content. H-E stain, ×40.

Fig. 3. The worms are observed in inter-villous space and in the mouth of Lieberkuehn's crypt in the 1st week of infection. The lower portion of villi are become thinner due to compression by worms. H-E stain, ×40.

Fig. 4. Eosinophils, plasma cells and lymphocytes are infiltrated in the lamina propria, and edema and vascular congestion are conspicuous findings in stroma. H-E stain, ×400.

Fig. 5. When a worm is located between villi, the lining epithelial layer of a villi is markedly compressed and/or sloughed. H-E stain, ×400.

Fig. 6. The epithelial layer are also flattened and degenerated by worm. H-E stain, ×400.

Figs. 7-12
Fig. 7. In the 4th week of infection, the villous necrosis is observed although lesser in degree. The edema on the tip of villi are seen. H-E stain, ×40.

Fig. 8. The lymphoid follicles are markedly swollen and enlarged due to infection. H-E stain, ×40.

Fig. 9. In the 6th week of infection, one worm is found in the crypt showing direct contact with the lymphoid tissue. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 10. In the 1st day after reinfection, a young worm appeared in ileum. Villi are seen nearly normal except for some stromal changes. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 11. The higher magnification of Fig. 10. Crypt hyperplasia is also recognized. H-E stain, ×400.

Fig. 12. On 3rd day after reinfection, a young worm is observed within the glands of Lieberkuehn's crypt. H-E stain, ×400.

Figs. 13-18
Fig. 13. On 1st day, villi are nearly normal except for some stromal changes. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 14. Five worms are found in the epithelial layer and/or crypt. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 15. On the 1st week of reinfection, mucosal changes appeared again. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 16. The villi of ileum are almost normal. H-E stain, ×100.

Fig. 17. On 4th week after reinfection, villi are slender in shape and restored to normal. H-E stain, ×40.

Fig. 18. The lymphoid follicles restored to normal size, and confined at muscularis mucosa. H-E stain, ×100.

Figs. 19-22
Fig. 19. On the scanning electron micrograph, the villi are damaged as a result of infection. On 1st week after reinfection, destruction of villi around worm are noticed in jejunum. ×164.

Fig. 20. The four-week-old worm with many scale-like spines. The worm is more deeply impacted to the lowermost portion of the villi only showing a part of the hind body between villi. The tip of villi are sloughed and irregular in shape. ×310.

Fig. 21. On the 4th week after reinfection, the villous changes are also recognized. When compared with the 1st week of infection the degree of damage much improved. ×135.

Fig. 22. On the 6th week, The villi became almost normalized even though the tip were not fully regenerated. ×154.

Figs. 23-26
Fig. 23. On the 1st week after reinfection, the changes of villi are not remarkable when compared with primary infection. And the villi damage is confined at tip. ×156.

Fig. 24. The villi may be almost normal on 1st week after reinfection. One worm is found on the top of villi. ×150.

Fig. 25. On 4th week after reinfection, villi were almost normal. ×150.

Fig. 26. The villi showed normal velvety appearance with leaf-like pattern. And villi tips also restored nearly normal on 6th week after reinfection. ×150.


Table 1
Worm recovery rates and distribution in primary infection group

Table 2
Worm recovery rates and distribution in reinfection group

Table 3
Worm recovery rates and distribution of young and old worms in the early phase of the reinfection group

Table 4
The mucosal changes in primary infection groups

Table 5
The mucosal changes in the reinfection groups

1. Barth EE, et al. Immunology 1966;10:459–464.
2. Chai JY. Seoul J Med 1979;20(2):104–112.
3. Chai JY, Cho SY, Seo BS. Study on Metagonimus yokogawai(Katsurada, 1912) in Korea: IV. An epidemiological investigation along Tamjin River basin, South Cholla Do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 1977;15(2):115–120.
4. Ferguson A, Jarrett EE. Hypersensitivity reactions in small intestine. I Thymus dependence of experimental 'partial villous atrophy'. Gutq 1975;16(2):114–117.
5. Gushima H. Igaku Kenku 1939;13(3):637–655.
6. Seo BS, Hong NT. Study On Metagonimus Yokogawai(Katsurada, 1912) In Korea: I. On The Metacercaria, Its Distribution In The Second Intermediate Host And The Development In The Final Host. Korean J Parasitol 1969;7(3):129–142.
7. Ito J. Progress of Medical Parasitology in Japan 1964;1:315–393.
8. Jarrett EE, Jarrett WF, Urquhart GM. Quantitative studies on the kinetics of establishment and expulsion of intestinal nematode populations in susceptible and immune hosts. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in the rat. Parasitology 1968;58(3):625–639.
9. Keller R, Keist R. Protective immunity to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in the rat. Central role of the lymphocyte in worm expulsion. Immunology 1972;22(5):767–773.
10. Kim DC, Lee OY, Jeong EB. [Epidemiological conditions of Metagonimus yokogawai infection in Hadong Gun, Gyeongsang Nam Do]. Korean J Parasitol 1979;17(1):51–59.
11. Koga G. Igaku 1938;12(10):3471–3528.
12. Lee DL. Changes in adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis during the development of immunity to this nematode in rats. 1. Changes in ultrastructure. Parasitology 1969;59(1):29–39.
13. Lee JB, Chi JG, Lee SK, Cho SY. Study On The Pathology Of Metagonimiasis In Experimentally Infected Cat Intestine. Korean J Parasitol 1981;19(2):109–129.
14. Milner PF, Irvine RA, Barton CJ, Bras G, Richards R. Intestinal malabsorption in Strongyloides stercoralis infestation. Gut 1965;6(6):574–581.
15. Ogilvie BM, Hockley DJ. Effects of immunity of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis adult worms: reversible and irreversible changes in infectivity, reproduction, and morphology. J Parasitol 1968;54(6):1073–1084.
16. Ogilvie BM, Jones VE. Parasitological review. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: a review of immunity and host-parasite relationship in the rat. Exp Parasitol 1971;29(1):138–177.
17. Ogilvie BM, Jones VE. Immunity in the parasitic relationship between helminths and hosts. Prog Allergy 1973;17:93–144.
18. Ogilvie BM, Love RJ, Jarra W, Brown KN. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in rats. The cellular requirement for worm expulsion. Immunology 1977;32(4):521–528.
19. Ruitenberg EJ, Leenstra F, Elgersma A. Thymus dependence and independence of intestinal pathology in a Trichinella spiralis infection: a study in congenitally athymic (nude) mice. Br J Exp Pathol 1977;58(3):311–314.
20. Salem SS, et al. Brit Med J 1964;1:1074–1077.
21. Scofield AM. Effect of level of infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis on intestinal absorption of hexoses in rats. Int J Parasitol 1980;10(5-6):375–383.
22. Siński E, Holmes PH. In vitro binding of IgG and IgA to Nippostronglylus brasiliensis measured by radio-immunoassay. J Parasitol 1978;64(1):189–191.
23. Seo BS, Lee SH, Cho SY, Chai JY, Hong ST, Han IS, Sohn JS, Cho BH, Ahn SR, Lee SK, Chung SC, Kang KS, Shim HS, Hwang IS. An Epidemiologic Study On Clonorchiasis And Metagonimiasis In Riverside Areas In Korea. Korean J Parasitol 1981;19(2):137–150.
24. Soh CT, Ahn YK. [Epidemiological Study On Metagonimus Yokogawai Infection Along Boseong River In Jeonra Nam Do, Korea]. Korean J Parasitol 1978;16(1):1–13.
25. Stoll NR. Am J Hyg 1929;10:384–418.
26. Stoll NR. J Parasit 1929;15:107–148.
27. Symons LE. Epithelia cell mitosis and morphology in worm-free regions of the intestines of the rat infected by Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. J Parasitol 1978;64(5):958–959.
28. Yeo TO, et al. Seoul J Med 1971;12:259–267.
Editorial Office
Department of Molecular Parasitology, Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University,
2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
Tel: +82-31-299-6251   FAX: +82-1-299-6269   E-mail: kjp.editor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © 2022 by The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine.     Developed in M2PI