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Korean J Parasitol > Volume 19(Suppl):1981 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1981 Feb;19(Suppl):5-93. English.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1981.19.Suppl.5
Copyright © 1981 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Parasitic Amebae in Korea
Chin Thack Soh, M.D., D.M.Sc.
Department of Parasitology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul, Korea.
Director of Institute of Tropical Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
Abstract

This review dealt with biology, host-parasite relationship, symptomatology, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection and free livng amoeba.

Figures


Fig. 1
E. histolytica trophozoites. Showing the nuclear structures in photo and the diagram.


Fig. 2
E. histolytica trophozoites. Showing the nuclear structures in photo and the diagram.


Fig. 3
E. histolytica cysts. Showing the distinct two nuclei in photo and four nuclei in the diagram.


Fig. 4
E. histolytica cysts. Showing the distinct two nuclei in photo and four nuclei in the diagram.


Fig. 5
Scanning electron micrograph of E. histolytica cyst.


Fig. 6
Ultrastructure of E. histolytica trophozoite. Showing diffusely scattered cellular inclusions. (B: botton body, Gl: glycogen, Nu: nucleus, V: vacuole)


Figs. 7-9
Fig. 7. Normal E. histolytica. Showing acid phosphatase activity. The reaction is observed in the botton bodies (arrow) and vacuoles. (×9,900)

Fig. 8, 9. Same features as above in control. (×10,500 and ×13,200)



Figs. 10-11
Fig. 10. Beginnig stage of immobilization 30 minutes after reaction with patient's serum. (×9,000)

Fig. 11. Immobilized E. histolytica. Helical aggregates (HA) are shown. (×21,000)



Fig. 12
Phopagation curves (mean) of cyst originated. E. histolytica strains at various temperature conditions.


Fig. 13
Phopagation curves (mean) of E. histolytica strains YS-23, YS-24, YS-27 and NAMRU-II at various temperature conditions.


Fig. 14
Comparison of percentaage of blood eosinophils in each experimental group.


Fig. 15
Life cycle of E. histolytica.


Fig. 16
Complications of amebiasis.


Figs. 17-18
Chronic amebic ulcer of the colon involving submucosa (Fig. 17). Showing solitary ameba (arrow) and high power view (Fig. 18). (H-E, ×100, ×450)4


Figs. 19-20
Amebic liver abscess. Invaded ameba (arrow) in the parenchyma of the liver (Fig. 19) and the high power view (Fig. 20). (H-E, ×100, ×450)


Fig. 21
Possible processes of amebic liver abscess formation.


Fig. 22
Prevalences of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Korea. (Kim et al.,, 1971)


Figs. 23-25
Fig. 23, 24. Negative(lift) and positive(right) reactions of indirect fluorescent antilbody(IFA) test for diagnosis of amebiasis.

Fig. 25. Liver scan. Showing the cold area(arrow) in right upper portion.



Fig. 26-29
Fig. 26, 27. Ultrasonogram of amebic liver abscess. Showing cold areas before (Fig. 26) and after treatment.(Fig. 27).

Fig. 28, 29. Ameba immobilization test. Normal (Fig.28) and immobilized trophozoites. (Fig. 29).



Fig. 30
Chemical structures of niridazole and metronidazole.


Fig. 31
Chemical structures of Tinidazole(Fasigyn)


Fig. 32
Endamoebidae.

A, Trophozoite of Entamoeba gingivalis

B, C, Trophozoite and cyst of Entamoeba coli

D, E, Trophozoite and cyst of Entamoeba nana

F, G, Trophozoite and cyst of Iodamoeba b?tschlii

H, Trophozoite of Dientamoeba fragilis



Fig. 33
Scanning electron micrographs of free-living amebae.

1. Acanthamoeba royreba trophzoite.

2. Acanthamoeba sp., YM-4 trophzoite.

3. Acanthamoeba lenticulata trophzoite.

4. Naegleria fowleri trophzoite.



Figs. 34-37
Fig. 34. Brain of mouse infected with Acanthamoeba sp. (YM-2). Showing extensively edematous and hemorrhagic changes(B) comparing with the mormal(A).

Fig. 35, 36. Trophzoite and cyst of Acanthamoeba sp. (YM-2).

Fig. 37. Mouse brain infected with Acanthamoeba sp. (YM-2). Acute inflammatory change and the amebae (arrow) are shown.



Fig. 38
Agglutination of Acanthamoeba sp. (YM-4) before (A) and 45 minutes (B) after treatment with concanavalin A


Fig. 39
Electron microscopic findings in the control group.

1. A. royreba; Irregular cell membrane(CM), vacuoles(V) of different size, mitochondria(M), lipid droplet(L), rought endoplasmic reticulum(rER) and ribosomes(R) are observed.

2. Acanthamoeba sp. YM-4; Cell membrane, vacuoles, mitochondria and lipid droplet are shown.

3. A. lenticulata; Rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and vacuoles are demonstrated.

4. N fowleri; Many small vacuoles and nucleus with nucleolus are observed.



Fig. 40
Electron microscopic findings in the concanavalin A treated group.

1. A. royreba; No difference in the ultrastructure compared with the control.

2. Acanthamoeba sp. YM-4; Electron density along cell memnbrane increased slightly.

3. A. lenticulata; Electron density of cell memnbrane increased slightly, and lysosomes(LY) are observed.

4. N fowleri; No remarkable finding was shown compared with control.



Fig. 41
Electron microscopic findings in the horseradish peroxidase treated group.

1. A. royreba; Mitochondria were demonstrated remarkably.

2. Acanthamoeba sp. YM-4; Electron-dense reaction product was shown exclusively on the mitochondria and lysosome, and rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed.

3. A. lenticulata; Electron-dense mitochondria and lysosomes are shown.

4. N fowleri; Mitochondria and lipid droplet are shown.



Fig. 42
Electron microscopic findings in the group treated with concanawalin A and horseradish peroxidase.

1. A. royreba; There was no obvious difference with regard to the electron density of the cell membrane compared with control.

2. Acanthamoeba sp. YM-4; Electron-dense reaction product was demonstrated remarkably on the cell membrane, mitochondria and lysosome.

3. A. lenticulata; Electron-dense reaction product was observed exclusively on th cell membrane, mitochondria and lysosome.

4. N fowleri; Increased electron density on the form of intermittent aggregation.



Fig. 43
Cummulative death curve after intracranial infection of amebae in immunized mice.

△─△ : intraperitoneally immunized with 5×105 amebae once

▲…▲ : intraperitoneally immunized with 5×105 amebae twice.

□--□ : intraperitoneally immunized.

●…● : control.



Fig. 44
Cummulative death curve after intracranial infection of amebae in immunosuppressed mice.

△─△ : prednisolone treated.

□--□ : gamma-ray irradiated.

●…● : control.


Tables


Table 1
Classification of the order Amoebina (Kudo, 1954)


Table 2
Pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica. strains in Sprague-Dawley rat (Soh et al., 1969)


Table 3
Strains of Entamoeba histolytica. (Cho et al., 1972b)


Table 4
Growth of Entamoeba histolytica in modified diphasic medium to which rabbit red blood cells were added (Ro, 1967)


Table 5
Growth of Entamoeba histolytica in modified diphasic medium to which sheep red blood cells were added (Ro, 1967)


Table 6
Comparison of numbers of the mesenteric mast cells, and of degree of disrupted or degranulated mesenteric mast cells in mice ingected with Entamoeba histolytica, strain YS-24 (Im et al., 1975)


Table 7
Development of amebic ulcers in rat intestine after treatment with hormones (Lee, 1968)


Table 8
Development of amebic ulcers in rat intestine after exposure to shaking stress (Lee, 1968)


Table 9
Size of amebic ulcers in rat intestine compressed with surgical forceps (Lee, 1968)


Table 10
Number of amebic ulcers after previous Shigella dysenteriae infection in rat (Lee, 1968)


Table 11
Incidence of bacillary and amebic dysentery (Chun, 1975)


Table 12
Subjective symptoms in 48 cases of amebic colitis (Byoun and Hong, 1968)


Table 13
Objective symptoms in 48 cases of amebic colitis (Byoun and Hong, 1963)


Table 14
Stool nature and frequency of defecation in 48 cases of amebic colitis (Byoun and Hong, 1963)


Table 15
Physico-pathological findings in 48 cases of amebic colitis (Byoun and Hong, 1963)


Table 16
Prevalence of hepatomegaly in Jeju-Do (Cho et al., 1967)


Table 17
Clinical category, age group and sex distribution of amebiasis in Che-ju Island (Hong et al., 1967)


Table 18
Bacteriological examination of liver abscess in Che-ju Island (Hong et al., 1968)


Table 19
Development of amebic liver abscess in various experimental animals (Im and Kim, 1976)


Table 20
The effect of thioacetamide upon the development of amebic liver abscess in rats (Im and Kim, 1976)


Table 21
The effect of carbon tetrachloride upon the development of amebic liver abscess in rats (Im and Kim, 1976)


Table 22
Protozoa found in human subjects in Korea (Soh, 1973)


Table 23
Prevalences of intestinal protozoa according to age and sex (Kim et al., 1971)


Table 24
Prevalences of of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Korea


Table 25
Prevalences of of Entamoeba histolytica infection by age and sex in Korea (Kim et al., 1971)


Table 26
Prevalences of of Entamoeba histolytica infection by age in Jeju-Do (Kim, 1967)


Table 27
Age and sex distribution of amebic dysentery cases in Busan Children's Charity Hospital (Yoon and Choi, 1966)


Table 28
Amebic dysentery cases according to occupation. From the records of the clinical laboratory of Severance Union Medical College, 1913~1917 (Mills, 1927)


Table 29
Monthly incidence of intestinal protozoa among the out-patients of Severance Hospital, July 1, 1959~June 30, 1961 (Soh et al., 1961)


Table 30
Monthly cases of amebic dysentery in 10 provincial hospitals in Korea (Sato, 1913)


Table 31
E. histolytica cysts in various samples from Jeju Do (Kim, 1967)


Table 32
Entamoeba histolytica infection by household in Jeju-Do (Cho et al., 1967)


Table 33
Direct versus MGL versus rolling method in the detection of intestinal protozoa (Cho et al., 1972 d)


Table 34
Reproducibility of serological tests for diagnosis of amebiasis


Table 35
Reactivity of indirect fluorescent antibody(IFA) and ameba immobilization(AI) tests on Entamoeba histolytica (YS-9) with the sera of amebiasis cases in Cheju-Island (Cho and Soh, 1969)


Table 36
Comparisons of indirect fluoresecent antibody(IFA) and ameba immobilization(AI) tests in sera of amebiasis cases in Cheju-Island (Cho and Soh, 1969)


Table 37
Distribution of antibody reactivity by immunological tests in Entamoeba histolytica infected cases (Min, 1975)


Table 38
Results of latex agglutination(LA) test on serum from 24 patients with extraintestinal amebiasis, 19 cases with intestinal amebiasis and 20 healthy controls (Cho, 1974)


Table 39
Comparison of latex agglutination(LA) test with the results indirect hemagglutination (IHA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and ameba immobilization(AI) tests for the diagnosis of E. histolytica infections (Cho, 1974)


Table 40
Results of gel-dissusion precipitation(GDP) test on surum from 22 patients with extraintestinal amebiasis, 22 case with intestinal amebiasis, 21 healthy controls and 74 patients with miscellaneous non-amebic diseases (Cho, 1974)


Table 41
Comparison of gel-dissusion precipitation(GDP) test with indirect hemagglutination(IHA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and ameba immobilization(AI) tests for the diagnosis of E. histolytica infections (Cho, 1974)


Table 42
Amebicidal activity of conventional antiamebic drugs in vitro (Cho et al., 1969)


Table 43
Amebicidal activity of antibiotics and newly appeared synthetics (Cho et al., 1969)


Table 44
Regimen of Fasigyn to various group of E. histolytica infection and amebicidal activity based on the rate of negative conversion after the treatment (Soh and Min, 1974)


Table 45
Results of double blind trial in cyst carriers by tiberal and metronidazole versus placebo (Cho et al., 1976)


Table 46
Treatment of hepatic amebiasis by intravenous administration of 2gm of Ornidazole in two doses (Soh et al., 1978)


Table 47
Treatment of hepatic amebiasis by administration of 2.5gm Ornidazole in single dose (Soh et al., 1978)


Table 48
Death rate of mice after challenge infection with Acanthamoeba sp. YM-4


Table 49
Death rate after intracranial infection of 1×104Acanthamoeba sp. (YM-4) in prednisolone and gamma-ray treated mice.

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