| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact us |  
Korean J Parasitol > Volume 7(1):1969 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1969 Jun;7(1):32-41. English.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1969.7.1.32
Copyright © 1969 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Acquired immunity in albino rats to Clonorchis sinensis
Young Hee Goh
Department of Parasitology and Institute of Endemic Diseases, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea.

The present study attempted to demonstrate an acquired immunity against Clonorchis sinensis in albino rat. Three separate experiments were carried out to determine acquired resistance developed by stimulating procedure followed by challenging infection with metacercariae.

Acquired resistance was evaluated by the rate of recovery or the average number of flukes recovered from the liver of challenged albino rats, compared with the controls.

1. In drder to demonstrate the rate of recovery of the fluke, three experimental groups of rats were challenged with 50 metacercariae per rat- 7,15 and 30 days after single injection of worm extract.

The recovery rate was ranged from 33.2% to 38.0% in experimental group and their control group harbored from 37.8% to 42.6%. No significant difference was found on statistical analysis.

2. In experimental groups received two immunizing injections with worm extract followed by challenging infection of metacercariae. Statistically significant difference was recovered between experimentals and controls.

It was noted that reduction of the recovery rate was prominent in Group 5 and 6, which were challenged 15 and 30 days after two stimulating injections.

3. From the third experiment which was consisted of single immunizing infection with 20 metacercariae followed by challenging infection with 30 metacercariae, no significant reduction was found between experimental rats and their controls. The number of recovered worms ranged from 16.2 to 18.5 worms in experimental group, while that of control group ranged from 18.9 to 19.8 worms.

4. The evidence of delayed hypersensitivity reaction was observed in the groups with acquired immunity developed rats, by histopathological study of host hepatic tissue.


Fig. 1
The liver of the control group. Dilatation and proliferation of bile ducts, and derangement of hepatic cell cords are observed.(×430)

Fig. 2
The liver of the control Group. Focal necrosis of liver parenchyma and fibrosis of portal space.

Fig. 3
The liver of the experimental Group 3. The liver shows dilatation and proliferation of bile duct and small lymphocyte infiltration in sinusoids.(×100)

Fig. 4
The liver of Group 6. Massive mononuclear cell infiltration was observed around the dilated bile duct Relatively normal liver parenchymal cell was shown.(×430)

Fig. 5
The liver of Group 6. Small lymphocytes invade around central vein, and dilated sinusoids.(×430)

Fig. 6
The liver of Group 9. Thickening and proliferation of bile duct, fibrosis of portal space and widening of sinusoids were observed.(×430)


Table 1
Design of Experiment

Table 2
Results of one immunizing injection with crude worm extract of Clonorchis sinensis, followed by a challenging infection

Table 3
Results of a immunizing and a booster injection with crude worm extract of Clonorchis sinensis, followed by a challenging infection

Table 4
Results of a initial infection with the metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis, followed by challenging infection

1. Dawes B. On the growth and maturation of Fasciola hepatica L. in the mouse. J Helminthol 1962;36:11–38.
2. Dawes B. Death of Fasciola Hepatica L. Weakened by X-Irradiation. Nature 1963;200:602–603.
3. Dawes B. A Preliminary Study of the Prospect of Inducing Immunity in Fascioliasis by Means of Infections with X-Irradiated Metacercarial Cysts and Subsequent Challenge with Normal Cysts of Fasciola Hepatica L. Parasitology 1964;54:369–389.
4. Hughes DL. Reduction of the pathogenicity of Fasciola hepatica in mice by x-irradiation. Nature 1962;193:1093–1094.
5. Kagan IG. J Parasit 1951;37 Suppl:28–29.
6. Kendall SB, Hebert N, Parfitt JW, Peirce MA. Resistance to reinfection with Fasciola hepatica in rabbits. Exp Parasitol 1967;20(2):242–247.
7. Kerr KB, et al. J Parasit 1935;21:319–320.
8. Lang BZ. Host-parasite relationships of Fasciola hepatica in the white mouse. II. Studies on acquired immunity. J Parasitol 1967;53(1):21–30.
9. Lang BZ. Fasciola hepatica and Hymenolepis microstoma in the laboratory mouse. J Parasitol 1967;53(1):213–214.
10. Lang BZ. Acquired immunity to Fasciola hepatica in the laboratory white mouse. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1968;17(4):561–567.
11. Lang BZ, Larsh JE Jr, Weatherly NF, Goulson HT. Demonstration of immunity to Fasciola hepatica in recipient mice given peritoneal exudate cells. J Parasitol 1967;53(1):208–209.
12. Levine DM, Kagan IG. Studies on the immunology of schistosomiasis by vaccination and passive transfer. J Parasitol 1960;46:787–792.
13. da Silva LC, Ferri RG. Schistosoma mansoni homogenate for active immunization of mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1968;17(3):369–371.
14. Mackaness GB. Brit Med Bull 1966;23:52–54.
15. Ogilvie BM, Smithers SR, Terry RJ. Reagin-like antibodies in experimental infections of Schistosoma mansoni and the passive transfer of resistance. Nature 1966;209(5029):1221–1223.
16. Oliver-Gonzalez J. Our knowledge of immunity to schistosomiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1967;16(5):565–567.
17. Radke MG, Sadun EH. Resistance produced in mice by exposure to irradiated Schistosoma mansonicercariae. Exp Parasitol 1963;13:134–142.
18. Rieber S, Anderson RI, Radke MG. Serologic diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections. III. Isolation and purification of antigen from adult S. mansoni for the complement fixation test. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1961;10:351–355.
19. Sadun EH. Immunization in Schistosomiasis by Previous Exposure to Homologous and Heterologous Cercariea by Inoculation of Preparations from Schistosomes and by Exposure to Irradiated Cercariae. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1963;113:418–439.
20. Sadun EH, Lin SS. Studies on the host parasite relationships to Schistosoma japonicum. IV. Resistance acquired by infection, by vaccination and by the injection of immune serum, in monkeys, rabbits and mice. J Parasitol 1959;45:543–548.
21. Sawada T, Nagata Y, Takei K, Sato S. Studies on the Substance Responsible for the Skin Tests on Clonorchiasis. Jpn J Exp Med 1964;34:315–322.
22. Sawada T, Takei K, Williams JE, Moose JW. Isolation and purification of antigen from adult Clonorchis sinensis for complement fixation and precipitin tests. Exp Parasitol 1965;17(3):340–349.
23. Seong CY, Seo BS. [Studies On Sarles' Phenomenon Of The Excysted Larvae Of Clonorchis Sinensis]. Korean J Parasitol 1968;6(1):15–22.
24. Sinclair KB. Brit Vet J 1962;118:35–53.
25. Smithers SR, Terry RJ. Resistance to experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni in rhesus monkeys induced by the transfer of adult worms. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1967;61(4):517–533.
26. Soulsby EJ. The Nature and Origin of the Functional Antigens in Helminth Infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1963;113:492–509.
27. Thorpe E. An Immunocytochemical Study with Fasciola Hepatica. Parasitology 1965;55:209–214.
28. Thorpe E. Liver damage and the host-parasite relationship in experimental fascioliasis in the albino rat. Res Vet Sci 1965;6(4):498–509.
29. Broome AWJ, et al. Vet Res 1962;52:146–156.
30. Urquhart GM, Mulligan W, Jennings FW. Artificial immunity to Fasciola hepatica in rabbits. I. Some studies with protein antigens of F. hepatica. J Infect Dis 1954;94(2):126–133.
Editorial Office
Department of Molecular Parasitology, Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University,
2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
Tel: +82-31-299-6251   FAX: +82-1-299-6269   E-mail: kjp.editor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © 2022 by The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine.     Developed in M2PI